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Vaccines studies on autism:


  • Altmann D. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Lancet 2000;355:409.
  • Bedford H, et al, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907.
  • Bradstreet J, El Dahr J, Anthony A, Kartzinel J, Wakefield, A.
    Detection of Measles Virus Genomic RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid of
    Children with Regressive Autism: a Report of Three Cases. J Am Phys
    Surg, Vol 9 No 2, 2004.
  • Chen W, Landau S, Sham P, Fombonne E. No evidence for links between
    autism, MMR and measles virus. Psychol Med. 2004 Apr;34(3):543-
  • Connolly J, Allen I, Hurwitz L, Millar JHD. Measles antibody and
    antigen in SSPE. Lancet 1967;i:542
  • Dales L, Hammer SJ, Smith NJ. Time trends in autism and MMR immunization coverage in California. JAMA. 2001;285:1183-1185.
  • DeWilde S, Carey IM, Richards N, Hilton SR, Cook DG. Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination? Br J Gen Pract. 2001 Mar;51(464):226-7.
  • Edwardes M, Baltzan M. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism. Argument is too simplistic. BMJ. 2001 Jul 21;323(7305):163; author reply 164.
  • Edwardes M, Baltzan M. MMR Immunization and Autism. JAMA 2001;285:2852-3.Farrington CP, Miller E, Taylor B. MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association. Vaccine. 2001 Jun 14;19(27):3632-5.
  • Freeman JM, Magoffin RL, Lennette EH, Herndon RM. Additional evidence of relation between subacute inclusion body encephalitis and measles virus. Lancet 1967;ii:129-131.
  • Garenne M, Leroy O, Bean J-P, Sene I, Child mortality after high titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. Lancet 1991;2:903-907.
  • Geier M, Geier D. Pediatric MMR Vaccination Safety. Int Pediatr. 2003:18/(2); 203-208.
  • Gillberg C, Heijbel H. MMR and autism. Autism. 1998;2:423-24.
  • Goin-Kochel RP, Mackintosh VH, Myers BJ. How many doctors does it take to make an autism spectrum diagnosis? Autism. 2006 Sep;10(5):439-51.
  • Goldman GS, Yazbak FE. An investigation of the association between MMR vaccination and autism in Denmark. J Am Phys Surg. 2004;9:70-75.
  • Honda H, Shimizu Y, Rutter M. No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;46(6):572-9.
  • Immunization Safety Review Committee, Institute of Medicine. Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.
  • Jirapinyo P, Thakernpol K, Chaichanwatanakul K. Cytopathic effects of measles virus on the human intestinal mucosa. J. Paed. Gastroenterol. Nutrit.1990;10:550-554.
  • Kawashima H, Mori T, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Wakefield A.
  • Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):723-9.
  • Kaye JA, del Mar Melero-Montes M, Jick H. Mumps, Measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. BMJ 2001;322:460-3.
  • Ki M, Park T, Gon Yi S, Kyoung Oh J, Youl Chi B. Risk Analysis of Aseptic Meningitis after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Korean Children by Using a Case-Crossover Design. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157:158-165.
  • Landrigan PJ, Witte JJ. Neurologic disorders following live measles-virus vaccination. JAMA. 1973;223:1459-1462.
  • Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB. The incidence and prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders: a Danish population-based study. Psychol Med. 2004;34:1339-1346.
  • Lindley K J, Milla PJ, "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine."Lancet 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907-908.
  • Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen
  • P, Olsen J, Melbye M. A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 7;347(19):1477-82.
  • Makela A, Nuorti JP, Peltola H. Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):957-63.
  • Miller E, Goldacre M, Pugh S, Colville A, Farrington P, Flower A,
  • Nash J, MacFarlane L, Tettmar R. Risk of aseptic meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in UK children. Lancet. 1993 Apr 17;341(8851):979-82.
  • Nicoll A, Elliman D, Ross E, "MMR vaccination and autism 1998," MJ 1998 Mar 7;316(7133):715-716.
  • Montgomery SM, Morris DL, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. Paramyxovirus infections in childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1999 Apr;116(4):796-803.
  • Patja A, Davidkin I, Kurki T, Kallio M, Valle M, Peltola H. Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:1127-34.
  • Peltola H, Patja A, Leinikki P, Valle M, Davidkin I, Paunio M. No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study. The Lancet. 1998; 351:1327-1328.
  • Plesner A-M, Hansen FJ, Taadon K, Nielson LH, Larsen CB, Pedersen E. Gait disturbance interpreted as cerebellar ataxia after MMR vaccination at 15 months of age: a follow-up study. Acta Paediatrica 2000;89:58-63.
  • Richler J, Luyster R, Risi S, Hsu WL, Dawson G, Bernier R, Dunn M,
  • Hepburn S, Hyman SL, McMahon WM, Goudie-Nice J, Minshew N, Rogers S, Sigman M, Spence MA, Goldberg WA, Tager-Flusberg H, Volkmar FR, Lord C. Is There a 'Regressive Phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder Associated with the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine? A CPEA Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Apr;36(3):299-316.
  • Rima BK, Duprex WP. Morbilliviruses and human disease. J Pathol. 2006 Jan;208(2):199-214.
  • Selway, "MMR vaccination and autism 1998. Medical practitioners need to give more than reassurance." BMJ 1998 Jun 13;316(7147):1824.
  • Singh VK, Lin SX, Yang V. Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immun Immunopathol. 1998 Oct:89(1):105-108.
  • Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. J Biomed Sci. 2002;9:359-364.
  • Singh VK, Jensen RL. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Apr;28(4):292-4.
  • Smeeth L. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism: ecological studies cannot answer main question. BMJ 2001 Jul;323(7305):163.
  • Spitzer WO. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 6;348(10):951-4; author reply 951-4.
  • Stott C, Blaxill M, Wakefield A. MMR and Autism in Perspective: the Denmark story. J Am Phys Surg. 2004;9 (3): 89-91.
  • Takahashi H, Suzumura S, Shirakizawa F, Wada N, Tanaka-Taya K, Arai
  • S, Okabe N, Ichikawa H, Sato T. An epidemiological study on Japanese autism concerning routine childhood immunization history. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun;56(3):114-7.
  • Taylor B, Miller E, Farrington CP, Petropoulos MC, Favot-Mayaud I, Li J, Waight P. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet. 1999;353:2026-2029.
  • Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 16;324(7334):393-6.
  • Uhlmann V, Martin CM, Sheils O, Pilkington L, Silva I, Killalea A, Murch SB, Walker-Smith J, Thomson M, Wakefield AJ, O'Leary JJ. Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Pathol. 2002 Apr;55(2):84-90.
  • Vijendra K. Singh, Sheren X. Lin, and Victor C. Yang, "Serological Association of Measles Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 with Brain Autoantibodies inAutism," Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, Oct 1998, Vol. 89, No. 1, p 105-108.
  • Wakefield AJ. Enterocolitis, Autism and Measles Virus. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S44-6.
  • Wakefield AJ. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 6;348(10):951-4; author reply 951-4.
  • Wakefield AJ. MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999;354:949-50.
  • Wakefield AJ, Montgomery SM. Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2000:19(4): 265 83.
  • Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, Linn ell J, Caisson DM, Mali M, Berelowitz M, Dhillon AP, Thomson MA, Harvey P, Valentine A, Davies SE, Walker-Smith JA: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 1998 Feb 28;351(9103): 637-41.
  • Wakefield AJ., Puleston J. Montgomery SM., Anthony A., O Leary J.J., Murch SH Entero-colonic encephalopathy, autism and opioid receptor ligands. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:663-674.
  • Wakefield A, Stott C, Limb K. Gastrointestinal comorbidity, autistic regression and Measles-containing vaccines: positive re-challenge and biological gradient. Medical Veritas: 3 (2006) 796 802.
  • Wakefield AJ, Stott C. No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study. <>
  • Walker SJ, Hepner K, Segal J, Krigsman A. Persistent ileal measles virus in a large cohort of regressive autistic children with ileocolitis and lymphonodular hyperplasia: revisitation of an earlier study. IMFAR.
  • Weibel RE, Caserta V, Benor DE. Acute encephalopathy followed by permanent brain injury or death associated with further attenuated measles vaccines: a review of claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Programme. Paediatrics 1998;101:383-387.
  • Wilson K, Mills E, Ross C, McGowan J, Jadad A. Association of autistic spectrum disorder and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Jul;157(7):628-34.
  • Yazbak FE. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism. MMR cannot be exonerated without explaining increased incidence of autism. BMJ. 2001 Jul 21;323(7305):163-4.
  • Zhou W, Pool V, Iskander JK, English-Bullard R, Ball R, Wise RP, Haber P, Pless RP, Mootrey G, Ellenberg SS, Braun MM, Chen RT. Surveillance for safety after immunization: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) United States, 1991-2001. MMWR Surveill
    Summ. 2003 Jan 24;52(1):1-24.

Studies that "disprove" a connection between MMR vacination and autism:

  • Peltola, et al. “No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study.” Lancet 1998; 351:1327-1328.
  • Taylor, et al. “Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association.” Lancet 1999; 353:2026-2029.

Autisme and small pox vaccination:


  • Eggers, C, "Autistic Syndrome (Kanner) and Vaccinations against Smallpox", Klin Paediatr, Mar 1976, 188(2):172-180.
Reported cases:
vaccindamage database

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