More transparency on vaccines, vaccinations and vaccine injuries


Studies on rubella vaccinations

Rubella vaccination and developmental disorders


  • Spruance, S.L., et al. “Recurrent joint symptoms in children vaccinated with HPV-77DK12 rubella vaccine.” Journal of Pediatrics 1972;80(3):413-17.
  • Hilleman, M.R., et al. “Live attenuated rubella virus vaccines: experiences with duck embryo cell preparations.” American Journal of Diseases of Children 1969; 118:166-171.
  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice (July 1980), pp. 53-54.

    Production of rubella vaccines with aborted fetuses:


  • Plotkin, S.A. “Development of RA 27/3 attenuated rubella virus grown in WI-38 cells.” Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. Cited in International Symposium on Rubella Vaccines, London 1968; Symposium Series on Immunobiol. Standards (Karger, Basel/New York, 1969); 11:249-260.
  • Hayflick, L., et al. “The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.” Exp. Cell Res. 1961; 25:585-621.
  • Plotkin, S.A., et al. “Studies of immunization with living rubella virus. Trials in children with a strain cultured from an aborted foetus.” Amer. J. Dis. Child. 1965; 110:381-389.
  • Hoskins, J.M., et al. “Behaviour of rubella virus in human diploid cell strains. I. Growth of virus. II. Studies of infected cells.” Arch. ges. Virusforsch 1967; 21:283-296.
  • Hayflick, L. “The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains.” Exp. Cell Res. 1965; 37:614-636.
  • Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR); 55th edition. (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 2001), p. 1966.

    Rubella vaccination and arthritis


  • Cooper, L.Z., et al. “Transient arthritis after rubella vaccination.” Am J Dis Child 1969; 118:218-225.
  • Spruance, S.L., et al. “Joint complications associated with derivatives of HPV-77 rubella virus vaccine.” American Journal of Diseases in Children 1971; 122:105-111.
  • Swartz, T.A., et al. “Clinical manifestations, according to age, among females given HPV-77 duck rubella vaccine.” American Journal of Epidemiology 1971; 94:246-51.
  • Weibel, R.E., et al. “Influence of age on clinical response to HPV-77 duck rubella vaccine.” J. of American Medical Association 1972; 222:805-807.
  • Thompson, G.R., et al. “Intermittent arthritis following rubella vaccination: a three year follow-up.” American Journal of Diseases of Children 1973; 125:526-530.
  • Chantler, J.K., et al. “Persistent rubella infection and rubella-associated arthritis.” Lancet (June 12, 1982):1323-1325.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Prolonged arthritis, viraemia, hypogamma-globulinaemia, and failed seroconversion following rubella immunisation.” Lancet 1984; 1:1475-1476.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Postpartum rubella immunization: association with development of prolonged arthritis, neurological sequelae, and chronic rubella viremia.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 1985; 152:606-612.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Rubella-associated arthritis. Comparative study of joint manifestations associated with natural rubella infection and RA 27/3 rubella immunisation.” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1986; 45:110-114.
  • Institute of Medicine. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991).
  • Benjamin, C.M., et al. “Joint and limb symptoms in children after immunisation with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.” British Medical Journal 1992; 304:1075-78.

    Rubella vaccination and neurological complications:


  • Kilroy, A.W., et al. “Two syndromes following rubella immunization.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1970; 214:2287-2292.
  • Gilmarten, R.C., et al. “Rubella vaccine myeloradiculoneuritis.” Journal of Pediatrics 1972; 80:406-412.
  • Schaffner, W., et al. “Polyneuropathy following rubella immunization: a follow-up study and review of the problem.” American Journal of Diseases of Children 1974; 127:684-688.
  • Institute of Medicine. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991).
  • Mühlebach-Sponer, M., et al. “Intrathecal rubella antibodies in an adolescent with Guillain-Barré syndrome after mumps-measles-rubella vaccination.” European Journal of Pediatrics 1994; 154:166.
  • Rubella vaccination and diabetes:


  • Menser, M., et al. “Rubella infection and diabetes mellitus.” Lancet (January 14, 1978), pp. 57-60.
  • Rayfield, E.J., et al. “Rubella virus-induced diabetes in the hamster.” Diabetes (December 1986); 35:1278-1281.
  • Ehrengut, W. “Central nervous system sequelae of immunization against measles, mumps, rubella and poliomyelitis.” Acta Paediatrica Japonica 1990; 32:8-11.
  • Aubrey, J., et al. “Postpartum rubella immunization: association with development of prolonged arthritis, neurological sequelae, and chronic rubella viremia.” Journal of Infectious Diseases (September 1985); 152(3):606-612.
  • Coulter, Harris. “Childhood vaccinations and Juvenile-Onset (Type-1) diabetes.” Congressional Testimony. Committee on Appropriations, subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies. (April 16, 1997).
  • Coyle, P.K., et al. “Rubella-specific immune complexes after congenital infection and vaccination.” Infection and Immunity (May 1982); 36(2):498-503.
  • Numazaki, K., et al. “Infection of cultured human fetal pancreatic islet cells by rubella virus.” American Journal of Clinical Pathology 1989; 91:446-451.
  • Rubella vaccination and chronic fatigue syndrom:


  • Tobi, M., et al. “Prolonged atypical illness associated with serological evidence of persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection.” Lancet 1982; 1:61-64.
  • Bicker, U. “Some new aspects of autoimmunity.” Journal of Immuno-pharmacology 1986; 8:543-559.
  • Allen, A.D. “Is RA27/3 rubella immunization a cause of Chronic Fatigue?” Medical Hypotheses 1988; 27:217-220.
  • Lieberman, A.D. “The role of the rubella virus in the chronic fatigue syndrome.” Clinical Ecology 1991; 7(3):51-54.

    Effectivity of rubella vaccination:


  • Klock, L.E., et al. “Failure of rubella herd immunity during an epidemic.” New England Journal of Medicine 1973; 288(2):69-72.
  • Allan, B. “Rubella immunisation.” Australian Journal of Medical Technology 1973; 4:26-27.
  • Lawless, M., et al. “Rubella susceptibility in sixth-graders.” Pediatrics (June 1980); 65:1086-1089.
  • Bart, K.J., et al. “Universal immunization to interrupt rubella.” Review of Infectious Diseases 1985; 7(1):S177-184.
  • Crowder, M., et al. “Rubella susceptibility in young women of rural East Texas: 1980 and 1985.” Texas Medicine 1987; 83:43-47.
  • Fulginiti, V. “Controversies in current immunization policy and practices.” Current Problems in Pediatrics 1976; 6:14.
  • Herrmann, K.L., et al. “Rubella antibody persistence after immunization.” Journal of the America Medical Association 1982; 247(2):193-196.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Failed rubella immunization in adults: association with immunologic and virological abnormalities.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 1985; 151(2):330-336.
  • Rubella vaccination and epidemiology:


  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice (July 1980), p. 55.
  • CDC. “Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome—United States, 1985-1988. MMWR 1989; 38:173-178.
  • CDC. “Current trends increase in rubella and congenital rubella syndrome —United States, 1988-1990.” MMWR Weekly (February 15, 1991); 40(6):93-99.
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